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Authors: Chemuku Wekesa, Leila Ndalilo, and Carolyne Manya Abstract: The fragmented forests of Taita Hills form an exceptional multifunctional socio-ecological production landscape with outstanding diversity of flora and fauna that provide ecosystem goods and services supporting human wellbeing and livelihood systems.

Journal Articles

Compartmentalized Allometric Equation for estimating volume and biomass of eucalyptus in agroforestry systems in Kenya , Published 2019-08-30
: Bor N C (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Muchiri M N (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Kigomo J N (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Hyvönen P (Natural Resources Institute), Nduati P N (Kenya Forest Service), Haakana H (Natural Resources Institute), Owuor N O (University of Nairobi)

This study used a sample of forty-one Eucalyptus grandis trees ranging from 4 to 44 cm diameter at breast height (dbh). The trees were destructively sampled in Nakuru and Kiambu counties, purposely selected in agro-ecological zone II, III and IV, to collect data on the different compartments to develop compartmentalized volume and biomass models. Stem volumes for the whole tree height or to a specific diameter point from the root point were calculated by integrals of splines formed from taper curves of different diameter points. Densities of different compartments of the stem, branches, stump and roots were determined by dividing their sample disks oven dry weight (wood and bark separately) with the fresh volume of the sample disk, whereas, twigs and foliage densities were determined by dividing their sample dry weight with fresh weight. Compartment’s biomass was calculated by multiplying their volume with respective density.

Piloting Biomass energy audit for energy and environmental conservation in Homa-bay County, Kenya
: Bor N C Kitheka E (Kenya Forestry Research Institute ),Ogutu C (Gums and Resins Association ),Ingutia C (Kenya Forestry Research Institute ),Muga M (Kenya Forestry Research Institute ),Githiomi J (Kenya Forestry Research Institute )

Abstract: Biomass energy meets about 70% of Kenyans national energy requirements and over 90% of rural population are depended on it. However, the traditional ways of producing and utilizing the bioenergy is inefficient and therefore unsustainable. Bioenergy consumers expecially households, institutions and local enterprises lack adequate knowledge on their consumption levels, available energy conservation technologies, alternative fuels like briquettes and areas of energy wastage. Piloting biomass energy audit was undertaken in Homa-Bay County with objectives of determining the consumption trends of the consumers, the types of fuel used, sources of the fuels, utilization technologies and identify areas of energy wastage. Semi-structured questionnaire and an energy audit tool were used to collect information from the respondents. Results showed that biomass energy is the main energy type for majority of the respondents for cooking and heating. The traditional three stone and metal cook stoves are the most preferred stoves. At household level, fuelwood is sourced from own farms and neighbouring community forests while fuelwood and charcoal for institutions and domestic use are obtained from markets. On average bioenergy takes 30% of the total domestic and institutional kitchen expenditure and this has contributed significantly towards higher energy bills in institutions and at household’s levels. The study shows that energy efficiency audit is critical for consumers to track their consumption trends and identify areas of energy wastage. The study recommends frequent energy audit, use of energy saving technologies and establishment of woodlots as strategies for energy conservation.

On-farm tree growing opportunities and constraints in Murang’a county, Kenya
:Peter Gachie ( Kenya Forestry Research Institute ) , Jonah Kipsat ( Kenya Forestry Research Institute ), Joshua Cheboiwo ( Kenya Forestry Research Institute ), Milton Esitubi ( Kenya Forestry Research Institute ), James Mwaura ( Kenya Forestry Research Institute ), Peninah Wairimu ( Kenya Forestry Research Institute ), Miriam Gathogo (Kenya Forestry Research Institute)

Abstract: Careful and efficient collection of information on agroforestry practices at different agro-ecological zones has a great contribution to promote or to improve important agroforestry practices. This survey was conducted with the objective of identifying major reasons for on-farm tree planting, tree species preferred and prioritizing major constraints to tree planting in Murang’a County, Kenya. The survey was done on 141 selected farmer households in Murang’a North, South and East sub-counties. The data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS software. The tree species most popular in all the studied sub-counties included G. robusta, C. eminii, P. americana and C. macrostachyus. These species are valued by farmers for their products including fuelwood, fruits, timber, fencing and ornamental. From the study, 30 tree uses were recorded. About 81% of respondents face various constraints in tree growing such as drought, pest attack, theft, high cost of seedlings, poor soils, animal browsing and trees competition with crops. Despite the constraints, 93% of respondents had plans to plant more trees in future, with preferred species being G. robusta, P. americana, M. indica and Eucalyptus spp. These species were preferred because of their high benefits as souces of income, timber, fuelwood, and fruits. Farmers also prefered tree species that didn’t compete with agricultural crops and potrayed faster growth. Most of the farmers with future tree planting plans preferred boundaries planting. The study findings can guide tree planting in Muranga county and other similar areas.

Land cover changes and its effects on streamflow in the Malewa River Basin, Kenya
: Cheruiyot M. K. ( WWF International ) , Gathuru G ( Kenyatta University ), Koske J ( Kenyatta University ), Soyc R Directorate of Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing

Abstract: Vegetated landscapes are transformed by both natural and human causes. This is thought to influence river flow regimes. It is argued that restored and reforested landscapes increase stream flow. However, studies done to date have been inconclusive on whether or not trees on restored or reforested landscapes increase stream flow. This study aimed to examine the effects of land cover changes on streamflow of the Malewa River Basin in Kenya. Satellite imagery based spatial change detection using ArcGIS 10.1 and ERDAS IMAGINE software was deployed to estimate the land cover changes. Based on projected land cover change data, a multiple regression technique was used to establish the relationship between land cover and streamflow. The results show that at Gauge 2GB01, area under wetland significantly predicted stream flows (b=0.134, t(488) =1.978, p=0.049), with an overall model (R2=0.018, F(3, 488)=2.976, p=0.031). Area under grassland (b=0.108, t(488)=2.325, p=0.02), shrubland (b=0.112, t(488)=1.976, p=0.049) and amount of rainfall (b=0.533, t(488)=14.048, p=0.000) combined significantly predicted stream flows. Rainfall alone significantly predicted stream flows (b=0.531, t(488)=13.885, p=0.000). Overall, the gains in forest restoration did not specifically influence streamflow except in combination with other vegetation and rainfall. There is need to increase soil cover rather than woody biomass alone in the regulation of stream flows. A systematic response to address the drivers of change in land cover is also needed.

Evaluating willingness to pay for watershed protection in Ndaka-Ini Dam, Murang’a County, Kenya
: Kagombe Joram (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Kungu James (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Mugendi Daniel (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Cheboiwo Joshua (Kenya Forestry Research Institute)

Abstract: Payment for Environmental Services is an incentive based approach in natural resource management linking the suppliers and consumers of goods and services from a natural resource in a way that both parties contribute to improved delivery Nairobi City gets 80% of water supply from Ndakaini dam but few of the residents are able to link availability of clean water in their pipes to conservation of water catchments areas. The objective of the study was to find out whether users of water from Ndaka-ini dam could participate in watershed protection scheme through Payment for Water Services. The study identified factors that could influence willingness of water users to pay for the environment services. Primary and secondary data were collected based on baseline survey and qualitative research approaches, interview schedules, questionnaires and, focus group discussions. Results showed that 83% of farmers are willing to participate in scheme aimed at improving conservation. There was significant relationship between source of water and amount of money they could give but attached condition of clean and regular water. The government could make use of the findings of the study to develop a payment of environment service model for Ndakaini dam.

Viability of East African Sandalwood Seed Stored at various temperatures for two yearscan sandalwood
: Kamondo B.M ( Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Kariuki J.G ( Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Nyamongo D.O (Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation, Genetic Resources Research Institute), Giathi G ( Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Wafula A.W ( Kenya Forestry Research Institute), G.M. Muturi

Abstract: East African Sandalwood (Osyris lanceolata) is highly valued in the manufacturing of perfumery and medicinal products, and there is need for its domestication. Seed storage behavior was determined as the information is important in planning and implementing the species planting programmes and conservation strategies. Fresh seeds and those dried to a moisture content of 7% were placed in airtight plastic vials and stored at a constant temperature of 200C, ambient temperature and in a cold room set at -200C, respectively. At 0, 3, 9, 12 and 24 months of storage, seeds were subjected to a germination test. At month zero, dried seeds had scored better in mean parameter values for germination capacity (G), mean germination time (MT) and germination value (GV) than fresh seeds. Germination capacity of seed stored fresh dropped rapidly by the third month in all the storage environments from 69 % to mean less than 16 % making it inconsequential to test for storability. Germination capacity of dried seed dropped gradually in all the storage environments.. Dried seed stored at ambient and constant temperatures registered G of over 70 % in 3 months and over 60 % at 3 to 9 months. By 24 months, the G dropped drastically to 21 % for seed stored at ambient and constant temperatures and to 29 % for seed stored in cold room. There was significant difference in G, GV and MT (p < 0.01) depending on the period of storage. The results indicate that sandalwood seed is neither a classical recalcitrant nor orthodox and may be classified as having intermediate seed storage behaviour but withstanding drying to low moisture content.

Indigenous traditional knowledge on landscapes, biodiversity use in Mt. Elgon Forest Ecosystem and implication for conservation
: Langat D ( Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Khalwale T ( Kenya Forestry Research, Lake Victoria Eco-Region Research Programme), Kisiwa A (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Ongugo P (Kenya Forestry Research Institute)

Abstract: The integrity of the forest ecosystem is shaped by communities’ uses, traditional knowledge, and practices. Because community participation is critical in the management of conservation areas, it is essential that resource managers and policymakers understand local traditional knowledge, biodiversity use to inform appropriate interventions. This study was undertaken to document traditional indigenous knowledge on landscapes, biodiversity uses, and their impacts. It formed part of a wider study meant to develop forest restoration efforts to enhance the flow of ecosystems services and livelihoods of local communities in the Mt. Elgon forest ecosystem. The study used Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques to capture traditional indigenous knowledge on landscapes, forest biodiversity uses, and their importance to local livelihoods. Types of landscapes and biodiversity uses were free listed and importance value assessed using the weighted ranking method. Twelve landscapes were identified as important to local people and their associated faunal and floral species. Fifteen plant and ten animal species were ranked in order of importance to local communities. These forest biodiversity resources provide human health, shelter, cultural and spiritual wellbeing, and cash income. This study has shown that forest biodiversity is important to the local livelihoods and local people have wealth of traditional knowledge on forest biodiversity, uses, and management practices. Although traditional knowledge is gradually declining because of socioeconomic and cultural change; it is imperative to integrate some of this knowledge in forest management.

Community perception of ecosystem services and management implications of three forests in Western part of Kenya
: Kisiwa A (Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Langat K (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Gatama S Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Okoth S (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Kiprop J (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Cheboiwo J (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Kagombe J (Kenya Forestry Research Institute)

Abstract: Understanding local community perceptions of forest Ecosystem Services (ES) is critical in crafting viable conservation strategies or management plans sensitive to livelihoods of the local people. This is because One major driver of forest degradation is lack of appreciation of ecosystem values and low perception of forest ecosystems by diversity of stakeholders. Current conservation discourse recognizes the integration of local views and perception of forest Ecosystem Services (ES). This study investigated forest ES their importance to local communities, threats and current and future flow in Mau, Cherangany and Mt. Elgon forest ecosystems. The study collected data using Participatory Rural Appraisal methods to identify the ES. The identified forest ES were ranked in a participatory exercises using weighted ranking method (Pebble Distribution Method (PDM). Twenty-five ES were identified Water provision ranked the highest with importance value of between 15 % - 24 % in the 3 ecosystems. Water was also identified as the only ES that will remain important today, and 10 years to come. Main threats were identified as demand for wood products, encroachment and overgrazing. However, future importance value of the ES linked to this threats is predicted to reduce. This paper clearly demonstrates the high value of provisioning services by local communities relative to the other ES categories, which is critical in influencing the behavior of the local people and in enabling incorporation of local values in management plans and policies.

Cost-benefit analysis of agroforestry technologies in semi-arid regions of West-Pokot county, Kenya
: Mandila B (University of Kabianga), Hitimana J (University of Kabianga), (Kiplagat K University of Eldoret), Mengich E ( Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Namaswa T (University of Eldoret)

Abstract: West-Pokot County, Kenya experiences harsh arid and semi-arid climatic conditions associated with high poverty indicators. To alleviate poverty, NonGovernmental Organizations initiated projects to promote agroforestry in order to increase sustainable farm forestry management for food, energy security and wealth creation. However, adoption of agroforestry technologies has been slow in these regions due to scanty information on their profitability. This study determined costs, benefits and benefit-cost ratios (B/C) of agroforestry technologies in West-Pokot with the aim of scaling up of profitable and sustainable agroforestry. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two sub-locations of the county, Lelan and Chepareria. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 91 and 90 households respectively. Questionnaire based interviews and field observations were used in collecting data. Mann–Whitney U test was used for pair wise analysis to determine B/C ratios of agroforestry technologies in Chepareria and Lelan that were significantly different. Boundary tree planting had the highest B/C in Lelan (9.4) and Chepareria (6.88), while scattered trees on farm had the lowest B/C of 0.68 in Lelan and 1.11 in Chepareria. Mann Whitney U test indicated that the B/C ratios of agroforestry technologies in Chepareria and Lelan were significantly different (U= 210.500, P < 0.005). Boundary planting and fodder bank technologies had higher B/C in Lelan as compared to Chepareria. In conclusion, all agroforestry technologies, except scattered trees on farms in Lelan were profitable in West-Pokot as they had a B/C greater than 1.

Optimization of piperine extraction from black pepper (piper nigrum) using different solvents for control of bedbugs
: Matena H G (Dedan Kimathi University of Technology), Kariuki N Z (Dedan Kimathi University of Technology), Ongarora B G (Dedan Kimathi University of Technology)

Abstract: Synthetic insecticides are known to cause negative environmental impact, an outcome which has led to increased reaseach activity on natural bioresources as possible substitutes. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of piperine in controlling bedbugs. Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and all the reagents were obtained from commercial sources and used without further purification. The optimal conditions for piperine extraction and its efficacy as an insecticide were investigated. Piperine (C17H19NO3) was extracted using Soxhlet extraction method and its properties determined. Ethanol (C2H5OH) gave the highest yield of piperine compared to dichloromethane (CH2Cl2). Due to low water-solubility of piperine, different solvent mixtures were used to improve solubility. Toxicity against bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) was carried out and the optimum concentration determined to be 1.4 g L-1 of piperine in an aliquot of ethanol/ water (v/v 1:4). At this concentration, both mature and young bedbugs took approximately 300-minute post-exposure to die. The extract was also 100% effective in inhibiting hatching of bedbug eggs while 83.4 % the unsprayed eggs hatched within seven days. Piperine can, therefore, serve as an insecticide against bedbugs since it is effective on all developmental stages of the bugs.

Synthesis of the development in gums and resins sub-sector in Kenya
: Muga M O (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Chikamai B N (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Oriwo V A (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Gachathi F N (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Mbiru S S (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Luvanda A M (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Wekesa L (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Wekesa C (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Omondi S (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Lelon J (Kenya Forestry Research Institute)

Abstract: Gums and resins of commercial value in Kenya include: gum arabic; myrrh; hagar; and frankincense. This paper synthesizes what has been done and achievements made in the sub-sector since 1988 as well as future prospects. The aim was to inform private and public institutions interested in the gums and resins and policy makers. The key achievements in this sub-sector included taxonomic, ecological and chemical characterization of gums and resins, characterization of soil physico-chemical properties, establishment of genetic diversity and population structure of Acacia senegal and piloting of plantation development of A. senegal. Other achievements were in resource assessment and mapping, market chain analysis, capacity building of stakeholders and feasibility studies on the potential for commercialization of the processing of the products. The potential annual production is 16,291 t and 10,134 t for gum Arabic and resins, respectively, with main markets in Europe (gum Arabic) and Asia (gum resins). Kenya’s exports are about 59 t and 2446 t for gum Arabic and resins, respectively. Incapacity to bulk enough quantities mainly collected from the wild and lack of reliable suppliers humber export. The government prepared the gums and resins regulations which was awaiting gazettement at the time of this review. From the synthesis, it is concluded that the developments made in the sub-sector have not translated into volumes marketed. More efforts therefore are necessary to stimulate and enhance volumes collected and marketed.

Defects in Plantation Soft Wood in Kenya: Causes, Extent and distribution
: Muthike G (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Karega S (Kenya Forest Service), Githiomi J (Kenya Forestry Research Institute)

Abstract: This paper reports on the magnitude of defects in Cupressus lusitanica and their distribution. The study analysed data collected from all forest regions where defects were identified. Results indicated that defects in sawn timber were reported in most Cupressus lusitanica (Cypress) plantations, ranging between 23 and 37%. On the average, over 91 % of all the defects observed were a combination of heart rot and oemida gahani, a common pest in Cypress wood. Peculiar cases (0.4%) involving termite attack on standing trees was observed in western region. The magnitude of the defects significantly differed among different regions. Much of the damage was attributed to monkeys, particularly in Mau and central Kenya, while in Mt. Kenya and Aberdare, damage to trees were associated with buffaloes and elephants. The age of the trees had a significant influence on the magnitude of defects even within the same region. The study recommended need to develop strategies to reduce the primary causes of defects and increase the quality of raw materials available for the wood industry. Further, there is need to improve silvicultural treatment and harvest trees at optimum rotation age to avoid extended damage of the wood in case there is initial attack causing any of the defects. The study further recommends diversification of species and introduction of bamboo as an industrial material particularly in high altitude areas.

The Potential of casuarina equisetifolia and melia volkensii tree species in improving soil fertility in Kwale and Kilifi Counties, Kenya
: Mwadalu Riziki (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Mary Gathara (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Muturi Gabriel (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Musingo T.E Mbuvi (Kenya Forestry Research Institute)

Abstract: Low soil fertility is a major biophysical root-cause of declining per capita land productivity in Kenya. In most parts of the country, soils are deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and in some cases potassium. Trees are important in soil fertility enhancement as they offer an excellent opportunity for farmers to meet nutrient demand in agricultural systems. The aim of the study was to determine the potential of Casuarina equisetifolia and Melia volkensii tree species on soil fertility improvement in Kwale and Kilifi Counties, Kenya. The experiment was established on-farm in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three treatments: Casuarina, Melia and control with eight replicates arranged in 20 x 20 m tree plots. Soil samples were obtained in 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 from depths of 0 to 20 cm, 20 to 40 cm and 40 to 60 cm and analyzed for soil pH, Electro Conductivity; soil Carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K), Data was subjected to Analysis of Variance using R version 4.0.2 for windows. Results indicated that total N and P were higher in C. equisetifolia and M. volkensii plots compared to the control treatment; and total Carbon was higher in M. volkensii treatment. There was a gradual decline soil C across the assessment period which could be attributed to higher decomposition rates at the study sites. There was also a positive relationship between soil pH and soil P (r2=0.128, 0.345, 0.327 for 2014, 2015 and 2016 respectively). The results indicated that C. equisetifolia and M. volkensii slightly enhanced soil fertility through increased N and P, which can be attributed to nitrogen fixation by C. equisetifolia through Frankia bacteria and nutrient recycling by M. volkensii. The findings from this study can be by researchers and extension officers for advising farmers engaged in C. equisetifolia and M. volkensii farming and for promotion of agroforestry using these tree species.

Evidence of genetic diversity and taxonomic differentiation among Acacia Senegal populations are varieties in Kenya on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA molecular markers
: Omondi F Stephen (Kenya Forestry Research Institute)

Abstract: Acacia senegal is a multipurpose tree species that forms an essential component of many farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa where it is commercially exploited for gum arabic production. However, the species is yet to be put to optimal production in some countries due to inadequate information on its population genetics and taxonomic delimitation. This study reports the use of 13 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to determine genetic diversity and taxonomic relationships among 12 natural populations of A. senegal in Kenya. High genetic diversity was found for all populations. Mean gene diversity (He) for all populations was at 0.288 with effective number of alleles per locus (Ne) of 1.496. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed most genetic variations residing within (60%) rather than among populations. However, significant differentiation was detected among populations (ɸst = 0.130; P < 0.001). Cluster analysis based on similarity coefficient delimited three main groups corresponding to the three putative varieties of A. senegal namely senegal, kerensis and leiorhachis. The RAPD technology suggested high genetic.

Status and growth determinants of non-timber forest products firms in Kenya
: Wekesa L (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Maalu J (University of Nairobi), Gathungu J (University of Nairobi), Wainaina G (University of Nairobi)

Abstract: The nature and state of non-timber forest products small and medium enterprises and what drives their growth in Kenya is not fully understood. Studies done have not adequately described the firms and demonstrated what influence their growth. Thus, this study performed descriptive and inferential statistical analyses to characterize and establish growth determinants of the firms. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey with questionnaire administered to entrepreneurs of 314 firms dealing with non-timber forest products selected using stratified random sampling methods from nine representative counties of Kenya. Factors assessed included characteristics of: the firm (age, products handled, size and legal status); and entrepreneurs/ owners (age, gender, education, experience, managerial and social skills). Frequency counts and percent were used in characterizing respondent firms whereas regression analysis was applied to establish growth determinants. It was observed that most firms were relatively new in operation, small in size with less than 10 employees, operated as sole proprietorship ventures and dealt with fruit based products. Most entrepreneurs were well educated young adults but had no requisite managerial and social skills, and industry experience. Nature of products and legal status (firm characteristics), and entrepreneur’s age and education (entrepreneur characteristics) influenced firm growth. It was concluded that entrepreneurship in non-timber forest products was in nascent stages of growth run with entrepreneurs without requisite qualifications necessary for creating competitiveness and growth of the industry. There was need, therefore for the firms to enhance their capacities through appropriate staff recruitment and/or training. Additionally, firm registration especially incorporating partnerships and limited companies be encouraged and supported.

From the wild to markets and farmlands: Plant species in Biotrade
: Lusweti A (National Museums of Kenya), Khayota B ( National Museums of Kenya), Masiga A (International Centre Insect Physiology and Eocology), Kyalo S (Kenya Wildlife Service), Otieno J (MUHAS), Mwangombe J (Kenya Forest Service), Gravendeel B (Naturalist Biodiversity Center and Institute of Biology Leiden-IBL)

Abstract: Wild collection of plant products mainly served subsistence needs but is now increasingly becoming an income generating activity. The needs include food, gums, tubers, fibers, materials for construction and herbal medicine among others. This niche market, part of biotrade in Kenya and is sometimes viewed as crime against wild plants because it is undocumented, largely unregulated and economically unaccounted for. Market surveys were carried out in towns in 8 Kenyan counties served by ports of entry/exit, bordering Uganda and Tanzania. Plant species in trade, products, volumes, sources, market players and associated challenges were documented. The results indicate widespread trade in plants locally, regionally or internationally. More than 100 flowering plant species were documented in trade in Kenyan markets, mainly wild-sourced for various uses. Most are sourced from forest reserves, communal land and small holder farms. This trade is dominated by the male gender, p-value: 0.000128 and product knowledge derives heavily from indigenous knowledge. The average number of species per stall was 28 species, with a mode of 10. The value of the K-S test statistic (D) is .32207 and as it is < .00001, this data is not normally distributed. Skewness: 2.525802 and Kurtosis: 6.846425 values indicate preference of certain species over others and that some species are collected and traded more frequently compared to others. Some 22 species frequently in trade, were identified, profiled and prioritized for conservation. Strategies are needed to sustain supply of the species in trade, hence domestication, farm forestry and restoration on communal land and natural forests are proposed.

Anthropogenic influences on species composition and diversity dryland forest fragments Kitui, Eastern Kenya
: Musau J M (Karatina University, School of Environmental Studies and Natural Resources Management), Mugo M J (Karatina University, School of Environmental Studies and Natural Resources Management)

Abstract: Increase in human population has devastating effects on many dryland forest fragments in Eastern Kenya. The objectives of this paper are to determine (i) key human activities in Kitui dryland forest fragments, (ii) tree species composition and (iii) impact of human activities on tree species composition and diversity. Two belt transect of 20 m wide and 500 m long that employed use of nested sample plots of 20 m ×20 m, sub-plots of 10 m ×10 m and micro-plots of 2 m ×5 m were established in each forest. Human activities occurred in both forests but with high frequency (P < 0.05) in Museve. Introduction of exotic species boosted species composition in Museve forest recording 68 species compared to Mutuluni with 57 species. However, it altered species dominances in Museve with Eucalyptus saligna (SIV=16.77%), an exotic species being most dominant and reduced species similarity (JIA=0.37) across the two forests. Tree cutting reduced (P < 0.05) species richness and diversity in Museve which recorded lower Shannon Diversity Index( H’=1.46) compared toMutuluni(H’=1.50). Thus, this study concludes that human activities affected species composition in both forests with Museve forest most disturbed. It thus recommends improved conservation measures for both forest reserves with most attention on Museve and further research on consequences of altering species dominance by Eucalyptus saligna in Museve forest.

Priority non-wood forest products in Cherang’any hills Ecosystem
: Obonyo C (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Muga M (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Kiprop J (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Othim R (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Oriwo V (National Forestry Research Institute), Ingutia C (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Bor N (Kenya Forestry Research Institute)

Abstract: Cherang’any forest is one of Kenya’s water towers that the Kenya’s Water Tower Protection and Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation (WaTER) programme aims at raising community appreciation of natural forest areas through the promotion of sustainable utilization of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) from the forest. This is however hindered by very scanty information on NWFPs in Ecosystem. In order to bridge the gap, the programme conducted a baseline survey of key non-wood forest products (NWFPs) of socio-economic importance in Cherang’anyforest ecosystem. The survey was done by administrating semi-structured questionnaires on 266 randomly selected respondents and conducting focused group and key-informant interviews. The data was analysed for descriptive statistics using SPSS. The survey revealed that: 98% of the respondents collected, utilized or sold NWFPs to neighbours, the NWFPs that were collected in large quantities included roots and tubers, indigenous fruits, fodder andgums and saps (annual per capita collection ranged between 19 – 80 Kg). Households earned up to KES 66,000 and KES 50,000 from sales of honey and other NWFPs respectively in 2016. It can therefore be concluded that NWFPs play a significant role in the day to day livelihoods of the communities living adjacent to Cherang’anyecosystem and have a potential of reducing poverty level. The earning from the NWFPs and therefore appreciation of the forest by the community can be enhanced through the sustainable commercialization of fodder, roots and tubers, indigenous fruits, gums and saps, vegetables, medicine, and honey.

The Value of Forest Ecosystem Services of Mau Compalex, Cherangang and Mt. Elgon, Kenya
: Langat D (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Cheboiwo J (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Okoth S (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Kiprop J (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Kisiwa A (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Guzha A (Center for International Forest Research), Smith N (United States Forest Service –International Programs), DeMeo T (United States Forest Service –International Programs), Kagombe J (Kenya Forestry Research Institute), Gatama S (Kenya Forestry Research Institute)

Abstract: Ecosystem services from Kenya’s forests have remained largely unmeasured and undervalued. Consequently, the benefits they provide are ignored in most forest management investment decisions. This has led to degradation and conversion of these forest ecosytems to alternative uses. This study was undertaken to value ecosystem services provided by the Mau, Cherangany hills and Mt. Elgon forest ecosystems. Primary data was collected from 1206 households and 148 forest product industry players using structured and semi- structured interviews. Secondary information was obtained from service providers, other published/ unpublished sources and from discussions with experts. Market prices, Contingent valuation, Cost-based and Benefit Transfer (BT) techniques were applied in estimating total economic values. Total Economic Value of the three ecosystems is about KES 339 billion (US$ 3.4 billion) per annum. Mau, Cherangany and Mt. Elgon ecosystems contributedKES 184 billion (US$ 1.84 billion), KES 42 billion (US$ 420million) and KES 115 billlion (US$1.15billion) respectively. In the three water towers, regulating services contributed the bulk of Total Economic Value (TEV) with 84 % (Mau), 66 % (Cherangany) and 93 % 9Mt Kenya) underscoring the importance of indirect use values in forest ecosystems. Mau forest ecosystem had the highest regulation value of KES 162 billion followed by Mt. Elgon with KES 109 billion per annum and Cherangany at KES 30.6 billion per annum. Provisioning services contributed 10%, 23% and 4 % of TEV for Mau, Cherangany and Mt. Elgon respectively. The TEV estimate from this study is very conservative because it did not encompass of all ecosystem service values. However, this study has provided vital that can assist conservation and management of the three water towers for enhanced livelihood and flow of ecosystem services.

Sustainable Business Models for Informal Charcoal Producers in Kenya
: Mutta, D.; Mahamane, L.;Wekesa, C.; Kowero, G.; Roos, A. Sustainable Business Models for Informal Charcoal Producers in Kenya. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3475.https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063475 .

Abstract: The sustainable business model (SBM) concept requires enterprises to integrate sustainability aspects in their planning and operations. Although 60% of the global working population make their living in the informal sector mostly in low-and middle income countries, the potential for SBMs has rarely been analyzed for this category

Variations in forest structure, tree species diversity and above-ground biomass in edges to interior cores of fragmented forest patches of Taita Hills, Kenya
C. Wekesaa, B.K. Kiruib, E.K. Marangab, G.M. Muturic Elsevier Journal Forest Ecology and Management 440 (2019) 48–60 .

Abstract: Comparative studies were undertaken in five forest fragments (Chawia, Fururu, Mbololo, Ngangao and Vuria) of varying sizes in Taita Hills, Kenya to determine the effects of forest edge on the forest structure, species diversity and richness and above-ground carbon stock along a forest edge-interior gradient, and the relationship between pioneer and late successional tree species.

Institutional linkages and landscape governance systems: the case of Mt. Marsabit, Kenya
Lance W. Robinson and Joram K. Kagombe Ecology and Society 23(1):27

Abstract The desire to overcome fragmented management of the natural ecosystems on which human beings depend has contributed to a growing interest in landscape approaches and to deeper questions about landscape governance systems.

Role of Devolved Governance in Enhancing Incentives in Participatory Forest Management in Kenya
Joram K. Kagombe, MTE Mbuvi & Joshua K. Cheboiwo Journal of Environment and Earth Science. Vol.7, No.2, 2017. Pg 12-17.

Abstract Natural resource management in East Africa has been centrally managed for a long period. However, recent initiation of decentralized system has been erratic and it is only recently, it has been undertaken systematically with supporting legislation and political will.

Payment for Environmental Services: Status and Opportunities in Kenya
Joram K. Kagombe, Joshua K. Cheboiwo, Alfred Gichu, Collins Handa & Jane Wamboi

Journal of Resources Development and Management. Vol.40, 2018. Abstract Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES) is a market driven tool to motivate upstream land owners to practices land uses that enhance water quantity flows through compensation incentive packages supported by downstream beneficiaries and partners.

Evaluating the Willingness to Pay for Watershed Protection in Ndaka-ini Dam, Muranga County, Kenya
Joram Kimenju Kagombe, Prof. James Kungu, Prof Daniel Mugendi & Joshua Kiplongei Cheboiwo

Civil and Environmental Research. Vol.10, No.1, 2018 Abstract Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES) has become a handy tool for promotion of sustainable watershed management across the globe due its versatility and capacity to engage multiple stakeholders in the public and private sectors.

Review of the Wood Industry in Kenya; Technology Development, Challenges and Opportunities
George Muthike, Joseph Githiomi.

International Journal of Research Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, Issue 10, 2017, PP 45-52 Abstract Kenya forest sector is vibrant, undergoing a number of remarkable changes. It is estimated that the forestry sector contributes approximately 3.6% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP).

First report of Teratosphaeria gauchensis causing stem canker of Eucalyptus in Kenya
Machua,J., Jimu,L., Njuguna,J.,Wingfield, M. J., Mwenje, E. & Roux, J. 2016, Forest Pathology

Abstract Teratosphaeria stem canker is an important disease of Eucalyptus species in many parts of the world where these trees are intensively propagated in plantations. Symptoms similar to those of Teratosphaeria stem canker.

Capability Map For Growing High Value Tree Species In The Coast Region of Kenya
KEFRI, 2016. Journal of Resources Development and Management. Vol.40, 2018. Abstract Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES) is a market driven tool to motivate upstream land owners to practices land uses that enhance water quantity flows through compensation incentive packages supported by downstream beneficiaries and partners.

Abstract The tree species capability map for the Coast Region is aimed at contributing to national development goals of meeting the 10% forest cover.

A Field Guide To Valuable Trees And Shrubs of Kaya Mudzi Muvya Forest In Kilifi County, Kenya
Francis Gachathi, Musingo T.E. Mbuvi, Linus Wekesa, Chemuku Wekesa & Nereoh Leley

,KEFRI, 2016. Abstract Kayas are remnant forest patches mainly found on the lowland hills along the Kenyan Coast that are considered sacred by the Mijikenda community.

Effects of Forest Disturbance on Vegetation Structure and Above-Ground Carbon in Three Isolated Forest Patches of Taita Hills
Chemuku Wekesa, Nereoh Leley, Elias Maranga, Bernard Kirui, Gabriel Muturi, Musingo Mbuvi, Ben Chikamai,

Open Journal of Forestry, 2016, 6, 142-161. ,KEFRI, 2016. Abstract Kayas are remnant forest patches mainly found on the lowland hills along the Kenyan Coast that are considered sacred by the Mijikenda community. Abstract The structure and species composition of undisturbed natural forests serve as benchmarks for understanding forest carbon storage potential for reduced carbon emissions.

Smallholder Innovation for Resilience(SIFOR): Watamu, Kilifi County, Kenya Coast 12–16 October 2015
C. Wekesa, N. Leley, L. Ndalilo, A. Amur, S. Uchi and K. Swiderska

,IIED 2016 Abstract The Smallholder Innovation for Resilience (SIFOR) project aims to strengthen biocultural innovation for food security in the face of climate change in China, India, Kenya and Peru.

Cherangani Hills Forest Strategic Ecosystem Management Plan 2015 - 2040

Abstract: The Cherangani Forest Ecosystem is a major water shed that supports the livelihoods of many communities locally and within the Lake Victoria and Lake Turkana basins.

North and South Nandi Forests Strategic Ecosystem Management Plan 2015 - 2040

Abstract: The North and South Nandi Forests are the fragments of forests in Nandi County of the once expansive forest area that included the Kakamega Forest before the 1920s.

Potential Growth, Yields and Socioeconomic Benefits of Four Indigenous Species for Restoration in Moist Forests, Mau Kenya
Cheboiwo, J., Mugabe, R., Mbinga, J., Mutiso, F.

Journal of Environment and Earth Science, Vol.5, No.6, 2015.p 72-85. Abstract: The study was aimed at bridging the knowledge gap by assessing the growth, yield potentials and financial returns of four indigenous species namely P. africana, X.gilletti, J. procera, and P. fulva.

Floristic Composition, Affinities and Plant Formations in Tropical Forests: A Case Study of Mau Forests in Kenya
Mutiso, F., Mugo, J., Cheboiwo, J., Sang, F., Tarus, G.

International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2015, 5(2): 79-91 Abstract: In the past, Mau forest complex has faced a wide range of disturbances majorly anthropogenic in nature. In this paper, the ecosystem floristic composition, richness, diversity and affinities are evaluated.

Financial analysis of growing Eucalyptus grandis for production of medium size power transmission poles and firewood in Kenya
Langat, D., Cheboiwo, J., Muchiri, M.

African Journal of Agriculture and Utilisation of Natural Resources for Sustainable Development 1 (1): 38-45, January, 2015 Abstract: Eucalyptus grandis are grown in most ecological zones and variety of soils in Kenya. Eucalyptus production is likely to increase due to rising demand for transmission poles and firewood.

Performance Of 28-Year-Old Provenances Of Liquidambar Styraciflua At Two Sites In Western Kenya
Mbinga, J., Chagala-Odera, E.

Octa Journal of Environmental Research Vol. 3(1): 094-099 Abstract: The phenotypic variation in growth of ten 28-year-old Liquidambar styraciflua provenances was studied at two sites, Lugari and Kakamega in Western Kenya.

Determining The Pottential For Introducing and Sustaining participatory Forest Management: A Case Study of South Nandi Forest of Western Kenya
Mbuvi, M.T.E, Musyoki, J.K., Ayiemba, W.O., Gichuki, J.W.

International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation Abstract: This study was conducted to provide socio-economic baseline information about the forest adjacent community members and other forest stakeholders who are the key blocks upon which the joint management strategies and programmes would be anchored.

An Assessment of the Socio-economic Importance of Melia volkensii based Enterprises in Kenya
Luvanda A., Musyoki J., Cheboiwo J., Wekesa, L and Ozawa M. (2015) KEFRI

Abstract: Melia market study as part of Extension is one of the four components of the Project on the Development of Drought Tolerant Trees species for the Drylands of Kenya, which is implemented by the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Acacia tortilis(Forsk.) Hayne
Omondi, S., Machua,J., Gicheru, J. and Hanaoka, S.

(2015) Springer Abstract: Acacia tortilis is a drought tolerant multipurpose dryland tree species widely distributed in Africa and Asia. Its overexploitation has caused its population decrease. A set of 11 polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci were isolated.

Socio-Economics Of Trans-Boundary Timber Commodity Chain In The East And Central Africa Region
Cheboiwo, J., Biloko, F., Abdalla, A., Kambuku, R. and Mutaganda, A.

(2015) KEFRI Abstract: The global Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) process has become an important tool in Africa, Asia and South America to control illegal timber trade with support from the European Union and other partners.